“The employment contract is not an employment contract; Workers are recruited separately and individually, but the mandate and conditions of their employment once in the unit are governed by the provisions of the collective agreement. In 1931, the Supreme Court was appointed in the Texas – N.O.R. Co. Brotherhood of Railway Clerks case, upholding the prohibition of employers` involvement in the selection of negotiators.  In 1962, President Kennedy signed an executive order that gives public employee unions the right to bargain collectively with federal authorities.  Collective bargaining is a process of bargaining between employers and a group of workers that aim to regulate wages, working conditions, benefits and other aspects of workers` compensation and workers` rights. The interests of workers are generally represented by representatives of a union to which the workers belong. Collective agreements concluded in these negotiations generally define the size of wages, working time, training, health and safety, overtime, claim mechanisms and rights to participate in professional or professional affairs.  While most decisions made by an employer concern workers, not all of them are parties to the bargaining process. Some decisions, such as advertising and product choice, are so indirectly related to the working relationship and have such a small impact on the working relationship that they are almost certainly only generous bargaining partners.
Other decisions, such as hiring, firing and operating rules, are so directly relevant to the employment relationship that they are almost certainly bargaining partners. Similarly, other decisions are not about the working relationship, but have a significant impact on the working relationship and are therefore difficult to classify as generous or mandatory bargaining topics (First National Maintenance Corp. v. NLRB, 452 U.S. 666, 101 P. Ct. 2573, 69 L. Ed. 2d 318  [citing Fibreboard Papers Products v. NLRB, 379 U.S. 203 85 per cent Ct.
398 13 L. Ed. 2d 233 (1964) [Stewart, J., concordant]). The Supreme Court has made several attempts to determine the extent of mandatory negotiations for this third category of management decisions. There are four fundamental points to collective agreement law: if one party wants to negotiate a mandatory subject, it is an unfair labour practice if the other refuses. Other topics are subjects of generous bargaining and it may be an unfair labour practice for some party to demand negotiations about them (NLRB v. Wooster Division of Borg-Warner Corp., 356 U.S. 342, 78 P.
Ct. 718, 2 L. Ed. 2d 823 ). Therefore, although the parties are obliged to negotiate negotiating matters before implementing unilateral amendments, they can unilaterally amend generous issues without negotiation and cannot be forced to negotiate such amendments. The term “collective bargaining” was first used in 1891 by Beatrice Webb, founder of the INDUSTRIAL relations sector in the United Kingdom.  It refers to the type of collective bargaining and agreements that have existed since the rise of trade unions in the 18th century. Under common law, Ford v. A.U.E.F.
, , the courts found once that collective agreements were not binding. Second, the Industrial Relations Act, introduced by Robert Carr (Minister of Labour in Edward Heath`s office), provided in 1971 that collective agreements were binding, unless a written contractual clause indicated otherwise.