The agreement is the result of a renegotiation between the member states of the North American Free Trade Agreement, which gave informal agreement on 30 September 2018 and officially on 1 October under the new agreement.  The USMCA was proposed by U.S. President Donald Trump and signed on November 30, 2018 by Trump, Mexican President Enrique Pea Nieto and Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau as a secondary event of the 2018 G20 summit in Buenos Aires. A revised version was signed on December 10, 2019 and ratified by the three countries, with final ratification (Canada) taking place on March 13, 2020 just before the Canadian Parliament adjourned due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The negotiations focused “primarily on car exports, tariffs on steel and aluminum, as well as the milk, egg and poultry markets.” A provision “prevents any party from enacting laws that restrict the cross-border flow of data.”  Compared to NAFTA, the USMCA increases environmental and labour standards and encourages domestic production of cars and trucks.  The agreement also provides up-to-date intellectual property protection, gives the U.S. more access to the Canadian milk market, imposes a quota for Canadian and Mexican auto production, and increases the customs limit for Canadians who purchase U.S. products online from $20 to $150.  The full list of differences between USMCA and ALEFTA is listed on the Website of the United States Trade Representative (USTR).  During the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Donald Trump`s campaign included a promise to renegotiate or eliminate NAFTA if the renegotiations fail.  After the election, Trump made a series of changes that influenced trade relations with other countries.
The exit from the Paris Agreement, the cessation of participation in the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations and the significantly larger increase in tariffs with China were some of the steps he took, which reinforced the fact that he was serious about changing NAFTA.  Much of the debate about the virtues and errors of the USMCA resembles the debate on all free trade agreements (FTAs), such as the nature of free trade agreements as public goods, potential violations of national sovereignty and the role of commercial, labour, environmental and consumer interests in the development of the language of trade agreements. Sectoral chapters, including Chapter 12, on FDA-regulated products have not been considered in most previous trade agreements, including NAFTA. Therefore, the inclusion of these annexes by the USMCA is an innovation not only in U.S. trade policy, but also for international public health. Before work, here`s some background.